Friday, May 22, 2020

Summary of the Dilemma of Obedience Essay - 509 Words

Summary of The Dilemma of Obedience In the chapter The Dilemma of Obedience of the book Obedience to Authority : An Experimental View, Stanley Milgram explores the concept of obedience to authority, and why people cannot defy authority even the situation is totally conflicting with morality. He introduces his ideas by giving the definition of obedience, and mentions Nazi extermination as an instance of obedience, which contradicts with moral values. According to Milgram, obedience idiosyncratically binds humankind to systems of authority, and links the individual action to political purpose. In terms of observations, obedience accepted as an inveterate behavior inclination, and obeying a system of authority has been comprehended as†¦show more content†¦Milgram conducts an experiment to examine the act of obeying, and shows concrete instances. He pressures the subjects to behave in a way conflicting with morality. In the experiment, the experimenter orders the subject to give increasing electro shocks to an a ccomplice, when he makes an error in a learning session. The situation makes the subject stressed and he hesitates about fulfilling the experimenters orders. Desperation and the manifest suffering of the accomplice force the subject to stop the experiment; however, the legitimate authority orders him to continue. In this experiment, Milgram aims to investigate when people refuse to obey and defy authority in an explicitly contradictive situation. Despite the stress and pressure on the subject, almost two-thirds of the subjects stopped the experiment. However, Milgram refuses to qualify those people, who shocked victim severely, as monsters, because the subjects have been chosen among ordinary people. Milgram comes with a set of binding factors that ensures the subject to continue to the experiment. He finds out that the politeness of the subject arises from his promise to help the experimenter, and the awkwardness of withdrawal binds the subject to the experiment. Milgram mentions a number of adjustments in the subjects opinions that destroy his decision to break with the authority. These adjustments help the subject sustain his relationship with the experimenter, and reduceShow MoreRelatedThe Movie Cool Hand Luke988 Words   |  4 Pageshas ethical and moral dilemmas that encourage the audience to delve deeper into the roles that ethics and morals play in society today. There are ethical and moral dilemmas that the characters face and for that historical and social time period there were viable solutions. There are moral values that guide the characters and historical experiences that shaped them. After a brief summary I will show two moral dilemmas, their outcome and alternatives. Also relating the dilemmas to articles by SelectiveRead MoreYiyao Su. 3/24/17. Career Or Family. Depicting In Both1607 Words   |  7 Pageshad much tougher lives. Differentiating from Ruan’s choice, when facing the dilemma, others may choose to either give up career and return to family or give up the family and accept late marriage or even celibate. In summary, the concept of women s career and family co-ordination makes career and family a heavy burden of women. Whatever the choice, women in the Republican period had to face a life dilemma, and this dilemma was mainly due to the following reasons. The first reason could be the residueRead MoreSpiritual Formation1595 Words   |  7 Pagesregard to personality development and the impact of external factors to that development. Lawrence Kohlberg sums up his theory with several distinct stages of development regarding moral reasoning. He presents moral dilemmas to persons, and observes how a person talks about those dilemmas. I will try to correlate my thoughts on spiritual formation throughout the life span to these theories as I use these authors’ models of mature thought, moral and cognitive development. Keywords: cognitive, psychosocialRead MoreThe Health Care System as a Lucrative Business Versus a Right of Citizenship1243 Words   |  5 PagesThe Health Care System as A Lucrative Business versus A Right of Citizenship Summary Many people contest to the statement that Americas health care system is the best in the world (The Basic Dilemma). The ones that agree wholeheartedly with this quote are those who are on the outside looking in. Surely they are ignorant of the statistical data proving that the land of the free is plagued with the horrible disease of insufficient medical coverage. This issue has always been a problem everRead MoreThe Stanford Prison Experiment And The Milgram Experiment1007 Words   |  5 Pageshuman behaviour, the effectiveness of treatment, mechanisms of a psychiatric disorder etc. Disadvantages of Ethical Guidelines Although ethical guidelines were designed to help psychologists to conduct morally justified studies and avoid ethical dilemmas, these enforceable guidelines restrict the scope of research. Despite the fact that Zimbardo’s and Milgram’s experiments were highly unethical, they provided valuable data about situational attribution. Similar experiments conducted in past, whichRead MoreThe Role Of Obedience Up Until Now Essay1815 Words   |  8 PagesThere are little facts about the role of obedience up until now. Psychologists have been debating on factors that constitute obedience within an individual. For example, certain theories suggest that people do horrible actions only if they are ordered to do so. Research has shown that most people obey all orders given to them by the authority-figure. The idea for this topic came to me while flipping through channels. I came across a show called 20/20, on the Investigation Discovery Channel. The showRead More What were the main arguments of Pauls opponents in Galatia Essay1277 Words   |  6 PagesJerusalem church questioned Paul’s apostleship and teaching. They insisted on Christians observing Jewish laws so when Paul allowed Gentiles to join the church without requiring any of these things, trouble was inevitable. The Galatians were in a dilemma. Here were two sets of teachers, each claiming to bring God’s truth, but contradicting one another. Who do they choose? Frustratingly, we only know what the teachers said to the Galatians, by working it out from Paul’s answers to them in his letterRead MoreWhat Role Did Socrates Play in Ancient Greece?1494 Words   |  6 Pages| What Role Did Socrates Play in Ancient Greece? | Natalia Gonzalez | | Mr. Pellegrini, 2A | 3/24/2010 | [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] | What Role Did Socrates Play in Ancient Greece? In the leading city of Athens 2,500 years ago during the Golden Age, a peculiar philosopher was born intoRead MoreDescribe Kohlberg’s Stages or Moral Development2027 Words   |  9 Pagesdevelopment theory of Jean Piaget. Piaget studied many aspects of moral judgment, most of his findings fit into a two stage process of moral development. Put into the simplest of terms, Stage 1: children younger than 10 or 11 years think about moral dilemmas one way and Stage 2: older children consider them differently. Kohlberg modified and expanded upon Piaget’s work to form a theory that explained the development of moral reasoning. He outlined the development in six stages, with three differentRead MoreAdolescence Is A Critical Time For A Human1405 Words   |  6 Pages Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development consists of three level and six stages that a human progresses through in life, while gaining a deeper concept to their moral development. Level 1: Pre-conventional; Stage1: Punishment and obedience orientation, Stage 2: Naà ¯ve instrumental hedonism, Level 2: Conventional; Stage 3: â€Å"Good boy/girl morality†, Stage 4: Authority-maintaining morality, Level 3: Post-conventional; Stage 5 Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically

Friday, May 8, 2020

Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust Essay - 1452 Words

Examining any issue pertaining to the Holocaust is accompanied with complexity and the possibility of controversy. This is especially true in dealing with the topic of Jewish resistance to the Holocaust. Historians are often divided on this complex issue, debating issues such as how â€Å"resistance† is defined and, in accordance with that definition, how much resistance occurred. According to Michael Marrus, â€Å"the very term Jewish resistance suggests a point of view.† Many factors, both internal such as differences in opinion on when or what resistance was appropriate, as well as external, such as the lack of arms with which to revolt, contributed to making resistance, particularly armed resistance, extremely difficult. When considering acts†¦show more content†¦Unfortunately, it was very difficult to gauge when this point would come; the Germans were inconsistent in when they carried out the executions, as some were killed immediately and others were kep t alive for a time. Understandably, many Jews inaccurately predicted the time before their imminent deaths and therefore missed their chance at resistance. In addition to the living conditions in the ghettos and camps, many differences in opinion led to hesitance to engage in resistance, particularly armed resistance. There was a great deal of collective responsibility involved with resistance- some believed that to act out was to endanger everyone in the group. Unfortunately, these worries were often founded in truth. In one instance, when a man protested the death of his brother by calling the SS member a murder, he was removed to prison, where he passed away; all of the other members of his group, who had witnessed the incident, were killed as well. By punishing the entire group for the rebellion of one, the SS helped to ensure that others would know the cost of resistance, and therefore be less inclined to resist themselves. Another instance of the idea of collective responsibility was seen in the Vilna ghetto- when fugitives escaped the ghetto, their families, as well all of the JewishShow MoreRelatedEssay Jewish Resistance to th e Nzi Holocaust922 Words   |  4 Pagesinternal and external factors contributing to a lack of Jewish resistance to the Holocaust, there was resistance in existence in many forms; the resistance that did occur must not be diminished or overlooked. When considering the definition of â€Å"resistance†, historians divide themselves on what this entails; some believe it to be only active, armed resistance attempts, while others define it more liberally. According to Yehuda Bauer, resistance entails â€Å"any group action consciously taken in oppositionRead MoreJewish Resistance During WWII and the Holocaust884 Words   |  4 PagesResistance: it takes many forms, from the simplest denial to an armed revolt. The Jews exhibited almost every form of resistance against the Nazis which proved to the world the Jews are not that easy to extinguish. The Jews had several ways of exhibiting resistance, but Organized armed resistance was the most powerful form of Jewish opposition(Jewish Resistance). Armed resistance is an important aspect to revolting not only because it reinflicts the pain lashed upon the Jews, but it also showsRead More Examine the practical and the morale constraints upon Jewish Resistance during the Holocaust.1659 Words   |  7 Pages Jewish resistance throughout the holocaust has caused much debate among academics historians, and even governments. Historians conclude that resistance was practical and morally constrained throughout the Second World War, for a variety of reasons. Historians such as Rab Bennett, Michael Marrus, Richard L Rubenstein, and John K Roth all have written in detail about the constraints placed upon Jewish resistance throughout this period. Each of these explanations will be examined throughout this paperRead MoreThe Most Effective Resistance Against Nazis And The Holocaust?1719 Words   |  7 PagesCountries or Groups Showed the Most Effective Resistance Against Nazis and the Holocaust? Many events in the world have been documented in our history books, but sometimes forgotten. However, the reminisce of events that took place during the Holocaust are the ones that are never forgotten. Neither should the groups and countries that showed resistance towards Hitler. Because of the antipathy towards Hitler s regime, resistance towards Nazi’s and the Holocaust was a combined effort from many differentRead MoreHolocaust Resistance: The Largest Jews Revolt Holocaust Resistance958 Words   |  4 PagesHolocaust Resistance During the duration of the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other minorities found themselves at the mercy of Nazi commandment. Despite the threat of death hanging over their heads, Jews organized resistance groups and fought back their oppressors. Resistance came in all sorts, ranging from committing suicide and dying with dignity to lashing out and killing their captors (â€Å"Jewish Resistance to the Nazi Genocide†). Within the camps there were individuals who openly foughtRead MoreEuropean Jews Resistance during the Holocaust868 Words   |  3 PagesPeople’s understanding of resistance among European Jews throughout the Holocaust is a topic that has been vehemently debated by scholars from various fields of study. These scholars have produced multiple notions regarding the idea of resistance among European Jews, as the debate has developed significantly since the end of World War II. The definition of the term â€Å"Jewish resistance,† which has been used t o characterize a rather obscure concept, still continues to be a major point of contentionRead MoreReligion Fights Back1273 Words   |  6 PagesReligion Fights Back Introduction Before the Holocaust, Jewish people had ordinary lives. Children went to school, parents went to work or owned their own business. They carried on spiritual traditions and strived for their own goals. During the Holocaust though, Jews lost the meaning of life (Michalczyk 177). They were considered useless and a burden to the Germans. This was continuously beat into their minds not only mentally but also physically (Michalczyk 177). Some were able to beat theseRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1708 Words   |  7 PagesThe Holocaust is, by definition, a tragedy. HaShoah, the Hebrew word for the Holocaust, translates to â€Å"the catastrophe.† The very notion of humor during the Holocaust may seem incongruous, appalling, and wildly inappropriate. Tragedy is seen as serious, while comedy is typically lighthearted in nature. However, there is precedence for ‘comic relief,’ the presence of humor in tragedy with the desired effect to relieve tension. Frequently , comic relief is used so that tragedy does not overshadow usRead MoreEssay on The Jewish Partisans of The Holocaust1146 Words   |  5 PagesResistance during the Holocaust, both Jewish and non-Jewish, is a daunting task to cover. Information abounds in relation to this which leads to the problem of putting all of it into one paper. Due to this, I will only cover the specifically Jewish Partisan fighters. The movements are divided into two groups of Eastern and Western Fighters. Partisans fought in almost every European country including but not limited to Belgium, Poland, Russia, France, Italy, Greece, and Lithuania. â€Å"A partisan isRead MoreJews Were Complacent During The Holocaust1670 Words   |  7 PagesJews were complacent during the Holocaust. For most people, the only knowledge, if any, about Jewish resistance during the Holocaust comes from a fictional movie, Inglourious Basterds. While certainly based on facts, Inglourious Basterds is not a good way of expelling a myth. In actuality, and despite popular belief, Jews were not complacent during the Holocaust. They performed both violent and non-violent resistance against the Nazis, such as spiritual resistance, forming partisan groups, and starting

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Challenges Facing the Youth Free Essays

Bill Henry ENC 1101 4th period Would you agree that in society today, there are several challenges facing the youth? Due to the economy and state standards, it has become harder for the youth to not only set goals but to accomplish the task which they have set for themselves. Graduation rates are lower, college enrollment is declining, and unemployment rates are increasing. One challenge facing today’s youth is that graduation rates are gradually decreasing yearly because school is becoming harder due to new state standards. We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges Facing the Youth or any similar topic only for you Order Now As of the year 2012-2013, eleventh grade students have been required to take a test called the PERT. The PERT test assesses students on the three basic subjects: math, reading, and writing skills. To display college readiness it is required that a student at least makes a 113 in math, 104 in reading, and a 99 in writing. If you fail to obtain the recommended score in these subject areas and your ACT scores are lower than average, you will be placed in remedial courses your senior year. Not all students are great test takers; therefore, for most students this may be a challenge. Yet another challenge is declining college enrollment. Many young adults feel as though college is not for them due to the hard time they may have had in high school. Not only that, the cost of tuition is extremely high. Between 2000–01 and 2010–11, prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board at public institutions rose 42 percent. Most young adults cannot afford it, especially those who are forced to be on their own after high school. Another challenge that is facing the youth is increasing unemployment rates. In a 2011 news story, BusinessWeek reported, â€Å"More than 200 million people globally are out of work, a record high, as almost two-thirds of advanced economies and half of developing countries are experiencing a slowdown in employment growth†. Nowadays, most jobs require that you have a high school diploma to work. Not everyone finishes high school! Many students in previous years are satisfied with a GED. These young adults with GED’s have now encountered a problem with job finding. Due to the economy and state standards, graduation rates are lower, college enrollment is declining, and unemployment rates are increasing. Yes, I definitely agree that in society today, there are several challenges facing the youth. How to cite Challenges Facing the Youth, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Culture Of England Essays - English Reformation,

The Culture of England What is it that defines a culture of a historical period? It can be the accumulation of the arts or advances in technology, science, music, teacher, the economy, war, or religion. It can also just be a simple change of view or beliefs in a group of people. These changes were clearly seen in England during the 17th century. The King's followers and Parliament began to dispute over the future government and religion of England. While these disputes were occurring, the common people, along with the upper class, argued over Catholicism, Puritanism, and the Anglican Church of England that, in turn, combine with the above, influenced society as well as marking it for this period. What and where did this theological movement come from? Many historians, such as G. E. Aylmer, believe that it was the Puritans, who didn't want to stem from the Anglican Church, who sparked the movement. They believed that "they were in favor of higher education and moral theological training, but not of free speculation and expression if these led in unacceptable directions" (Aylmer pg. 103.) During this time of social and political movement, it was the religious and strict puritans that developed and spread new philosophies. " Most of the truly original ideas were produced by people in varying ways out of step with prevailing orthadoxies- Anglican, Puritan, royalist, and parliamentarian. New theories about the individual, the state, and society were in the fullest sense the product of their time, yet the produced as it were against the grain" (Aylmer pg. 103.) Another movement that developed new ideas and speculation was the area of the sciences. "The public events of 1640-1660 were tangential to the progress in mathematics, physics, mechanics, astronomy, optics, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which taken together have without exaggeration been called the Scientific Revolution," (Aylmer pg. 107.) It was not limited to a particular region or time and was founded upon the ideas of the past and present. In the words of Aylmer, "but in the applied sciences, and what we nowadays call technology, things look different. Here the needs of government, the influence of pressure groups or economic incentives, and the general temper of the time may well have acted as a stimulus or catalyst," (pg. 107.) Science and technology sparked new navigational and mapping techniques, land drainage, and more efficient use of energy sources, such as water, mind, wood, charcoal, and coal. The relationship between the poet and the events of his time is not always a simple one. Since the censorship act was reimposed in 1649 binding the poets and authors into strict circumstances, we do not know what may have come out of this era. However, this is not to say great works of art didn't arrive. John Milton, Andrew Marville, and Edmund Waller were some of the young authors on the parliamentarian side. They produced great works inspired by all the nature and beauty that was surrounding them. Writing techniques such as satires, political writings, allegory, sarcasm and irony were all utilized by various authors. "Some of the Puritan preachers claimed that they cultivated ?the plain style', by contrast with the elaborate style of the Arminians and other enjoying Court favor who aimed only to reach select, upper-class, and educated audiences," (Aylmer pg. 109) Thus, Puritans not only sparked some intellectual achievements but also took part in all aspects of the culture during t his time. The courts, however, were "Discontent with monopolies, controls, and other government interference in agriculture, industry, trade, and transport" (Aylmer pg. 114.) Social classes and standing began to play a roll in the dividing nation. The Crown and the bishops were biast towards the top, and support for the Puritan-Parliamentarian cause was strongest in the middle levels of society. The effects of war can be plentiful. Not only does it induce the economy but also it creates new jobs and demand for supplies. On the other hand, if the war is fought in your nation, like in England during this time, it can hurt your environment more than it can help it. " The causalities, damage, and other losses arising directly from the fighting, together with the generally disruptive effects of war on agriculture, industry, trade,

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Ways of Forming New Words in a Language Essay Example

Ways of Forming New Words in a Language Essay Example Ways of Forming New Words in a Language Paper Ways of Forming New Words in a Language Paper ABSTRACT In the framework of the course Linguistics I, I am assigned to do a coursework on the subject of word formation. An introduction and definition of the processes used for the creation of new words as well as explicit examples in more than a language are included. Language has become an important issue all over the world today. It is a well known historical fact that all languages are constantly in a state of change. In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word. Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word’s meaning. The line between word formation and semantic change is sometimes a bit blurry ; what one person views as a new use of an old word, another person might view as a new word derived from an old one and identical to it in form. Word formation can also be contrasted with the formation of idiomatic expressions, though sometimes words can form from mueti-word phrases. The study of the internal structure of words, and of the rules by which words are formed, is called morphology. This word comes the traditional term for the most elemental unit of grammatical form which is the morpheme(From kin and Rodman, R 1998). A word is not a simple sequence of morphemes but has a hierarchical structure. In every language, there are morphological rules that determine how morphemes combine to from new words. According to Fromkin, V. and Rodman, R (1998) a word consists of one or more morphemes. Lexical content morphemes that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts are called root morphemes. When a root morpheme is combined with affix morphemes it forms a stem. Other affixes can be added to a stem to form a more complex stem. Some morphemes are bound in that they must be joined to other morphemes, are always parts of words and never words by the themselves. Other morphemes are free in that they need not to be attached to other morphemes. For instance, free, king, bore are free morphemes while – dom (as in freedom, kingdom, boredom) is a bound morpheme. Affixes, that is prefixes, suffixes, infixes and circumfixes, are bound morphemes. Prefixes occur before, suffixes after, infixes in the middle of, and circumfixes around stems. Lexical content or root morphemes constitute the major word classes – nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. These are open class items because their classes are easily added to. Morphological rules of word formation are complex. Here follows a simplistic schema of a frequent classification of morphological processes. Morphological processes Inflectional processes lexical processes Affixes erivational compounding processes other processes coinage Affixes Back formation conversion Suffixes Blending Prefixes Acronyms Eponyms (Words from names) Infixes Neologisms Borrowing Clipping (Abbreviations) (loanwords) Circumfixes Back Fore Middle Complex clipping clipping clipping clipping Inflectional morphemes are determined by the rules of syntax. They are added to complete words, whether simple monomorphemic words or complex polymorphemic words (i. e. words with more than one morpheme). Inflectional morphemes never change the syntactic category of the word. Some grammatical morphemes are inserted into sentences according to the syntactic structure. For example: In English, the past tense morpheme (: comfortable meaning â€Å"cosy† and uncomfortable which is the antonym, meaning â€Å"not cosy†. In French, the prefix im– gives a negative meaning to a word, as well. For example, the word possible meaning â€Å"likely to happen† prefixed by im- (impossible) means the opposite that is â€Å"unlikely to happen†. In Greek, if the prefix ? is added to the word  «  » we have the word  «  » which has the opposite meaning. A derived word may also be in a different grammatical class than the underived word. When a verb in English for example is suffixed with –able the result is an adjective such as desire + able> desirable. Respectively, in French we have adore + able > adorable (adjective) and in Greek, if the verb is suffixed with – , we have the verbal adjective . The changes made in grammatical classes are: from Noun to adjective English French Greek Boy + ish enfant + in + Verb to Noun: English French Greek Sing + er chant + eur + Adjective to Adverb: English French Greek Exact + ly exact + ement + Noun to Verb English French Greek Moral + ize moral + iser + Adjective to Noun English French Greek Tall + ness grand + eur o + Verb to Adjective English French Greek Creat + ive cre + atif + The other lexical process is compounding which is combining words together to form a compound word. An endocentic compound consists of a head, i. e. the categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole compound, and modifiers, which restrict this meaning. For example, the English compound â€Å"doghouse† where house is the head and dog is the modifier, is understood as a house intended for a dog. Obviously, an endocentric compound tends to be of the same part of speech (word class) as its head. For example: English French Greek railway chemin de fer Exocentric compounds do not have a head and their meaning often cannot be transparently guessed from its constituent parts. For example, the English compound white collar is neither a kind of collar nor a white thing. In an exocentric compound, the word class is determined lexically, disregarding the class of the constituents. For example, a must have is not a verb but a noun. In French, compound nouns are often formed by lefts: ENGLISH FRENCH GREEK Know-nothing grille-pain – Compounding is a common and frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of all languages. Acronyms, initialisms and alphabetisms are abbreviations written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. New acronyms are freely produced, particularly for names of organizations. Acronyms pronounced as sequences of letters can be called alphabetisms. Many acronyms are pronounced as words for example radar from radio detecting and ranging. Examples: ENGLISH FRENCH GREEK U. N for United Nations N. U for Nations Unies ?.? for Clipping is the word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts (Marchand: 1969). This process is sometimes called abbreviations. Clipping mainly consists of the following types:1) Back clipping 2) Fore –clipping 3) Middle clipping 4) Complex clipping. Back clipping: It is the most common type in which the beginning is retained. The unclipped original may be either a simple or a composite. Examples: ENGLISH FRENCH GREEK Doc (doctor) tele (television) ( ) Fore clipping: Here, the final part is retained. ENGLISH FRENCH GREEK Phone (telephone) bus (autobus) ( Middle clipping The middle of the word is retained. Examples: ENGLISH FRENCH Flu (influenza) frigo (refrigerateur) Complex clipping: clipped forms are also used in compounds. One part of the original compound most often remains intact. For example op art stands for optical art, in English. Sometimes both halves of a compound are clipped, as in navicert (navigation certificate) in English. Respectively, in French we have courriel (courrier electronique) for e-mail. In these cases it is difficult to know whether the resultant formation should be treated as a clipping or as a blend since the border between the two types is not always clear. According to Bauer (1993), the easiest way to draw the distinction is to say that those forms which retain compound stress are clipped compounds, whereas those that take simple word stress are not. By this criterion midcult is a compound made of clipping. According to Marchand (1969), clipping are not coined as words belonging to the standard vocabulary of a language. They originate as terms of a special group like schools, army, police, the medical profession etc, in the intimacy of a milieu where a hint is sufficient to indicate the whole. For example, in school slang originated exam (for examination) and tick (et = credit) originated in stock-exchange slang, whereas cap (tain) is an army slang. While clipping terms of some influential groups can pass into common usage, becoming part of the standard language, clipping of a socially unimportant class or group will remain group slang. The process of Back -Formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a derivation and removing apparent affixes, or more generally, be reconstructing an  «original » form from any kind of derived form ( including abbreviations or inflected forms). The resulting new word is called a back-formation. The simplest case is when a longer form of word pair predates what would usually be the basic form. For example, in English, the noun resurrection was borrowed from Latin and the verb resurrect was then derived from it. We expect the suffix -ion to be added to a verb to create a noun ; when as in this case the suffix is removed from the noun to create the verb, this is a back-formation. Back-formations of borrowed terms generally do not follow the rules of the original language. For example, antipodes, borrowed from Greek via Latin, has the apparent form of a plural noun, and is sometimes treated as such, with antipode taken to mean â€Å"an antipodal point†. The final podes is indeed plural, meaning feet, and the corresponding singular would be transliterated as pous (foot). However antipodes itself is a compound of anti (opposite) and podes (feet). As such, it is not a plural noun at all, and the singular antipous, if it existed at all, would mean  «a substitute foot ». Blending is a combination of only the beginning of one word with the end of another word. For example in English, motel from motor + hotel. In French, Copar from Comite Parisien. Coinage is the least common way among the various ways of creating words. It refers to the invention of totally new words. Specific brand names such as Kleenex, Jell-o, Vaseline are now sometimes used as the generic name for different brands of these types of products. Some of these words were created from existing words: Kleenex from the word clean for example. In Greek the word stands for the headache pills. In French, the brand name Carambar stands for the word caramel. Greek roots borrowed into English have also provided a means for coining new words. Thermos meaning â€Å"hot† + metron meaning â€Å"measure† give us thermometron. Latin, like Greek, has also provided prefixes and suffixes that are used productively with both native and nonnative roots. The prefix ex- comes from Latin: ex-husband in English. Respectively, the prefix hyper- coming from Greek: hypertension, in French. The suffix -able is also Latin, borrowed via French, and can be attached to almost any English verb. For example: readable, movable (Fromkin, V and Rodman, R: 1998). Conversion is a kind of word formation, as well. Specifically, it is the creation of a word from an existing word without any change in form. Conversion is more productive in some languages than in others; in English it is a fairly productive process. Often a word of one lexical category (part of speech) is converted from a word of an other lexical category. For example in English a noun can be used as a verb as in the following sentence: He’s papering the room walls. In French, we can have the formation of a noun from another noun: medecine from medecin. Conversions from adjectives to nouns and vice versa are both very common and unnotable in English; much more remarked upon is verbing, the creation of a verb by converting a noun or other word. Borrowing or loanword: is another process of word formation according to which linguistic elements of non-native origin are taken over and used in the language concerned. For instance, in English we have the word cliche which comes from French. In French, the word pull-over comes from English. In Greek, we extensively use the English word computer instead of the greek one . A neologism (from Greek = new, = word ) is a word, term or phrase which has been recently created ( coined often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context. For instance the term e-mail, as used today, would be an example of a neologism in English. Similarly, the word courier electronique in French and in Greek, the term . Eponyms or Words from Names: it refers to words that derive from proper names of indivi duals or places. In English, for instance, the word sandwich comes from the name of the forth Earl of Sandwich, who put his food between two slices of bread so that he could eat while he gambled. In French, the word molieresque comes from the name of the famous French writer Moliere. In Greek, the word comes from the famous ancient greek sophist . EPILOGUE Speakers of a language may know tens of thousands of words. Dictionaries include hundreds of thousands of words, all of which are known by some speakers of the language. But no dictionary can list all possible words since it is possible to add to the vocabulary of a language in many ways. There are always gaps in the lexicon-words that are not in the dictionary but that can be added. Some gaps are due to the fact that possible combinations or morphemes have not been made. There are morphological rules in every language that determine how morphemes combine to form new words. According to the analysis made in this assignment, morphological processes consist of inflectional and lexical process. In turn, lexical processes include derivational processes (by adding all kind of affixes ) and other processes such as Back-formation, Acronyms, Borrowing, Clipping, Eponyms, Blending, Conversion, Coinage, Neologisms and Compounding. All these word formation processes result in the richness of the vocabulary of a language. Speakers of a language can easily learn how to analyze a word of their language into its component morphemes, since their mental grammars include a mental lexicon of morphemes and the morphological rules for their combination. However this is not very easy for a learner of a language. Learning the morphological processes of language can be of great help for someone who learns it. REFERENCES Bauer, Laurie (1983). English Word –Formation Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press Fromkin,V. and Rodman, R. (1998). An Introduction to Language, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College. Larousse, (1988) Grammaire du Francais contemporain France : Paris, Larousse. Marchland, H (1969). The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word-Formation, 2nd ed. Munich: C,H. Oxford English Dictionary. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung S. A. Thompson (1975). On the Issue of Productivity in the Lexikon , ?. (2000).

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How to Publish an Ebook A Simple Ebook Publishing Guide to SELL

How to Publish an Ebook A Simple Ebook Publishing Guide to SELL How to Publish an Ebook: A Simple Ebook Publishing Guide to SELL Learning how to publish an ebook can be pretty painful without the right process. With kindle direct publishing, Amazon publishing, and other forms of self-publishing at your disposal, it can even be easy with our help.We get how much information is out there about learning how to publish an ebook. Here are the steps for how to publish an ebook:Write a strong bookCreate an Amazon KDP accountFormat your ebook for publishingUpload your ebook to KDPChoose your ebook publish dateBuild your book launch teamCreate hype for your ebookPublish your ebook!Create emphasis for it on your siteWith all the different types of advice, how do you know what to follow and what will just elongate your already lengthy process?Since we specialize in self-publishing, we can easily teach you how to publish an ebook without all the fuss and fluff that can bog you down along the way.Why write an ebook?The ever-rising trend of ebooks should be more than enough of a reason to write and publish your own ebook b ut if you’re not quite sold, we’ll break it down a bit further. Here are the benefits of an ebook:In 2018, ebook sales are projected to account for about one quarter of global book sales.Ebooks sell easier onlineEbooks can be used to grow your business more so than physical booksYou make a bigger profit from ebooksYou can grow your blog and its incomePassive incomeYou help save trees!You can embed links directly to your site and products you sellThey’re cheaper to produceMany authors choose to sell both physical copies and ebooks when they write a book but you can easily sell only ebooks and reap all of the benefits above.Now that you know the why, let’s talk about how to publish an ebook.NOTE: We cover everything in this blog post and much more about the writing, marketing, and publishing process in our VIP Self-Publishing Program. Learn more about it hereHow to publish an Ebook on AmazonAmazon is the biggest retailer online and with the world of book-bu ying migrating and settling on the internet, Amazon is the place to publish.Here’s how you can publish an ebook on Amazon with Kindle Direct Publishing.#1 Write a book worth buyingThere’s no point in publishing a book that’s not your best work. But if you’re not much of a writer or have no idea how to write a book in the first place, that can make this entire process much more daunting. In order to write a great ebook to sell on Amazon or even on your own website, you first have to pick a book idea that you’re passionate about. Remember, you’ll be writing up to and even more than 25,000 words so you want to make sure you have a topic you know a lot about and love.Here are the overall steps for writing a book and getting it ready for publication:Choose an ideaCome up with a good book title and subtitle Create your mind mapWrite a thorough outline from your mind mapSchedule your writing time and get your book done!Thoroughly self-editHire an editor to ensure perfectionHire a book cover design artist to bring your book to lifeThis might seem overwhelming but I promise, it’s not. We even have free training for you to understand exactly what it takes to write and publish your book.#2 Create your Amazon KDP accountLearning how to publish an ebook means navigating the online space in a way you may not be familiar with, like using Amazons Kindle Direct Publishing to get your ebook out into the world.Setting up your KDP account is actually really easy. Here’s all you have to do:Visit https://kdp.amazon.com and create an account. You can either use your existing Amazon account or a different email address.Set up all your tax information. You can’t submit your published ebook unless you have all of these steps completed.Once your tax information is all filled in, hit â€Å"Finished† and you’re all done.See? It’s pretty easy and simple to use from there. If you’re having trouble, we detailed more in-depth instructions over here. #3 Format the ebook properlyBook formatting is really, really important. If you just upload your manuscript as is, you’ll run into a number of different problems.And this is awful because with the â€Å"Look Inside† feature Amazon offers, anyone can see the formatting of your book right away.If it’s bad and difficult to read, they’ll avoid buying your ebook and your sales will tank.Most people hire a professional to format their book to ensure everything looks great but we also have a guide to help you format your book properly.#4 Upload your ebook to KDP accountThis is a very simple step for publishing an ebook. All you really have to do is â€Å"plug and chug,† as they say.You have all of the information you need and now it’s just about uploading your formatted manuscript to your KDP account and filling in the information you need to.That means you’ll need to fill out the title, su btitle, and the description.Now, you really don’t want to write a boring â€Å"filler† description. After the cover, this is the single most important part of publishing an ebook.If people aren’t sucked in by your description, they won’t buy your book.Here’s an example of a killer description that has helped sell thousands of copies of this book:#5 Choose a launch dateBelieve it or not, there are actually good and bad days to launch your book. Typically speaking, the winter holiday season is the worst time to publish a book simply because the advertising market will be super saturated.Everyone is putting their best ads forward so they can reap the rewards of those holiday spending dollars.And although this might seem like the perfect time to launch, it’s actually one of the worst.Your book can easily become lost in the hype of literally every other book and product marketed during that time.If you want to launch a book during thebest possib le time for its sales, use this guide below:Month to LaunchGood ForBad ForJanuarySelf-help, goal setting, inspirational/motivationalSummer-focused reads, fictionFebruaryLove, romance, poetryFiction, recipe booksMarchBaseball books, sports, spring, women's booksSelf-help, holidayAprilReligious, Easter, memoirs, World War II, FictionLove/romance, winter/holidayMaySummer reads, fiction, history, parentingRomance/love, self-helpJuneContemporary fiction, fatherhood/parenthoodDiet/exercise, romanceJuly/AugustFiction, heavier reading materialsHoliday, self-helpSeptemberHistory, politics, memoirs, school, collegeFiction, romance/loveOctoberMysteries, horror, thrillers, dark nonfictionLove/romance, happily-ever-afters, self-helpNovemberCookbooks, holidays, religion, children's booksSelf-help, romance/loveDecemberGenerally avoid launching during heavy buy/ad monthsMost books#6 Put together your launch teamThis is such an important step when it comes to self-publishing an ebook. What you real ly need is a great group of people who can help launch your book to heights you wouldn’t reach otherwise.If you want to learn more about how a launch team can hep you, check out the video below: Your launch team should be composed of people who:Love your bookWant to help youAre very enthusiastic about your bookHave some sort of following or online presenceAre fans of you and your workSince youre trusting these people to help get the word out, make sure they’re all committed. A great way to do that is to have an online application form that each person has to fill out.This will help narrow down those who are serious about helping you and will put in the time and effort to do so.Make sure to also check out this guide to building and managing your book launch team.#7 Build hype for your ebook on your website or blogMany who publish ebooks usually have a website or blog they can use to drive traffic to it. Not only that, but some actually use the ebook as a lead magnet an d even the main source of income on their site.And publishing a book even just an ebook can do wonders for growing your online business as well.What you have to do before your launch is to build interest about the ebook.Heres how you can build hype for publishing your ebook:Link to your book within blog postsCreate blog posts related to the topic of your bookCreate graphics for your book and place in your sidebar and within blog postsCreate a graphic to use on the front page of your websiteCreate an email sequence to sell your book (this is for those more advanced with a larger email list)Continuously look for ways to integrate your book into blog post ideas and on social mediaThe idea with optimizing your website with your book is to convert your blog followers into customers and to give those coming to your website from your book the content they’re actually looking for.All of this builds fans and most importantly, a loyal and engaged following!For example, we use Chandle r Bolts bookPublished. as a main point of interest on our website. This gives those who are already interested in the publishing industry something of high value right off the bat.#8 Publish your ebook!It’s time to kick off your ebook and launch! If you’ve followed the steps above, then you’re ready to get your book published and start reaping the rewards.The best part about publishing an ebook is that you don’t have to worry about ordering prints and going through the proofs and the entire process of adjusting how they look.Once the ebook format is complete, that’s all you need to concern yourself with in terms of delivery!Your launch day is very important and exciting.Make sure your launch team is ready for a day of sharing and even some activities.It’s best to host activities that your audience can actually engage in. Some fun launch day activities include things like hosting a live webinar, doing a QA on Twitter or Facebook or your pref erred platform, sending out an email to your entire email list, and any other fun pursuit your readers will benefit from.Get together with your launch team beforehand and have everyone brainstorm some launch day events. You can even give prizes to those whose ideas get used!#9 Create emphasis of your book on your webiste, social, or email listNow is the time to leverage that book!Writing the ebook itself isn’t the hardest part of this process; making continuous sales is. And the best way to ensure you keep pushing buyers to your book is to make it the focus of your blog and website.Plus, if you have those great reviews from your launch team, you can actually leverage those to make more sales.Place reviews on your website on the same page your book is linked to. They’re kind of like testimonials for a service. Except, in this case, your service is a book.You can feature them on your website wherever you want.Obviously, if you’re someone who only wants to sell yo ur ebook, a blog or website might not even be something on your ebook publishing to-do list.You should, however, think about creating a website to at least host your book and information on in case others want to find you and even connect with you about speaking engagements and other amazing opportunities a book can grant you.Are you ready to succeed with your book?Learning how to publish an ebook isn’t easy and it’s even more difficult without knowing exactly what to do next.So if you’re looking to write and publish your ebook anytime soon, follow these steps to get ahead of the curve and set yourself up for real success!#1 Sign up for your free training!That’s right! We’re offering you FREE training that’ll help you learn exactly what you need to do to go from blank page to published author in as little as 90 days and yes, it’s perfect even if you’re just going to publish an ebook.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Project Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Project Management - Assignment Example The application allows the employees to register for the company-Sponsored recreational programs, which includes bowling, walking, jogging among others. In addition, this application allows the employees to register for company-sponsored classes and programs for management of weight stress and other health related complications. The service cost benefit of this application is the ability to track employees on the level of involvement in these activities. To ensure effective implementation of this application the company’s top management is advised to offer incentives for the employees to join these programs (Patel, 2008). The financial cost benefit of this application to the company can be calculated as follows Assume that the present cost of the industry average health care premium is X, this means that MYH, Inc pays 20% more of X , which is equivalent to 1.2X. However, upon implementation of the application the company is able to save AED 120/employee/ year for full time employees for four years. This follows that the total amount saved on the 20,000 full time employees is as the following calculation The ability of this application to track employee health care expenses and company health care costs and facilitating the data importation from the current systems that track employee expenses submitted by the insurance providers if fundamental as it facilitates clarity in the employees expenditure relative to the company ‘s care cost on the employees. This helps in establishing the exact loss or profit incurred at the end of the fiscal year. This is relative to the health care expenditure. The calculations is as illustrated below The concept of cross-selling is based on the premise that when the organizations offers additional goods and services to the organization’s customers get more value to suppliers and other organizational